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TIN LANH


"Nhng g cua Se-sa hay tra cho Se-sa; nhng g cua Thien Chua hay tra cho Thien Chua..."  (Mac 12:17).

Vai nam trc ay, toi a co dp tham d mot buoi truyen giang. Nha giang s nay hoi:  "Tin Lanh la g?"  Roi tiep:  "Tin Lanh khong phai la tin...tc cai mnh." The la so thnh gia di ci o len.  Ho ci thch thu, v mot ngi da trang biet noi tieng Viet va pha tro na ay ch!  e cho thnh gia buon ngu trong mot buoi truyen giang va lam cho ho ci len cung la mot ieu tot o thoi.  Tuy nhien, e hieu ro tng tan ve nguyen uy cua cum t "Tin Lanh" thiet tng khong co cach g khac hn la chung ta phai quay ve vi Thanh Kinh.

T "Tin Lanh" trong Hi-lap van la danh t "Euaggelion" or "Good News" or "Gospel" c ghi chep 76 lan va ong t "rao giang Tin lanh" c chep 25 lan trong Tan Kinh. Ban Thanh Kinh Phap ng dch la "Evangelique."  Thanh Kinh La ma Cong Giao, cua Nguyen The Thuan, Chua Cu The, 1976, dch la "Tin Mng."  Nh vay, chung ta hieu c nguyen uy cua Tin Lanh a en t Tri Cao trong em Thien Chua Ngoi Hai vao i (Luca 2:10) ch khong phai t ong Tay hay ong My.

au the ky I, Tin Lanh, t khi iem Gie-ru-sa-lem cua Do-thai quoc, a ra khoi bien cng e en Hi-lap, La-ma va cac vung at khac cua Au Chau thi Thng co.  Cac s o v ai Phi-e-r, Phao-lo eu a at chan en kinh o La-ma.  Tin Lanh a c truyen rao tai ay va Hoi Thanh Chua a c thanh lap.  Nhieu the ky ve sau cho en thi ky Trung Co, Giao hoi a that s suy oi ve thuoc linh.  Mai cho en the ky XVI, khi tien s Martin Luther ng len khi xng em Giao hoi tr ve nguon vi ba khau hieu:  "Sola Gratia, Sola Fide, Sola Sriptura" (Grace alone, Faith alone, Scripture alone.)

Cot loi cua thong iep, ma tien s Martin Luther muon ay se la ngon uoc chieu roi gia coi em tam toi a phu bao giao hoi truyen thong t nghn nam qua, rang:  "Con ngi c cu roi bi An phuc t Thien Chua, do c tin ch khong bi viec lam lanh, va Li Chua co ga tr tham quyen tuyet oi."  Khi Luther giang day ve nhng ieu nay th Tin Vui, Evangelical, tren a nh la chay rng lan, tao nen mot phong trao hng phan mang giao dan tr ve nguon coi cua c tin chan chanh.  Cho en ngay nay, nhieu ngi a khong biet rang t ng "Tin Lanh", Evangelical, a c Hoi thanh Lutheran trong the ky XVI dung en e phan biet vi Cong Giao La-ma trong phong trao Cai chanh.

Nam 1530, trong phong trao Prostestant xuat hien t ng "Evangelical" hay la "Church of the Augburg Confession" la khi iem cua mot giai oan tuyen xng c tin trong ang Gie-xu Ky-to.  Thi ay, t ng "Lutheran" va "Evangelical" cung ong ngha e noi len s khac nhau vi Roman Catholics.  Nhom "Lutheran" hay "Evangelical" cung ch la mot a c giai phong khoi tn ieu Giao Hoang vo ngo (Papal infallibility.)  Mai cho en nam 1648, khi nha vua cong nhan Lutherans va Calvinists trong vng quoc c th Giao hoi Cai Chanh (Reformation) con c goi la "Evangelical Christian Church." Ke t o, cac Hoi thanh thuoc Protestant va Reformed tai Au Chau a s dung t "Evangelical" or "Evangelique," (Clifford E. Nelson,"The Rise of World Lutheranism," Fortress Press, 1982.)

Tren tram nam ve trc, trong ban Hien chng cua cac nha th Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS) rat bao thu ve tn ly eu co t ng "Evangelical;" tuy nhien, ngay nay chung ta thay ho t dung t ng "Evangelical" ben ngoai cung ch v khong muon b hieu lam danh hieu giao hoi Evangelical Lutheran Church America (ELCA) co tn ly cap tien, liberal, hn.

Vai nam trc ay, trong dp du khao tai Paris, Phap quoc, e nghien cu ve lch s Viet Can ai, tien s S hoc Vu Ng Chieu, ngi xuat than t vien ai hoc Madison, Wisconsin, mot than hu, a mang ve phong anh cua mot bc th a c lu tr trong Van Kho Phap quoc t nam 1922.  Bc th nay hiem va qu, va toi biet rang cac nha Lanh ao C.&.M.A. Viet Nam cha bao gi c nhn thay no.  Toi nhn cai En-tete:

        "The Christian and Missionary Alliance"-U.S.A.
        Headquarters: 690 Eight Avenue, New York.

Ke en co hai hang ch nho hn:

        Indo-China Stations: Hanoi, Tourane, Saigon.
        Headquarters: Temporarily at Wucho, So. China.

Th anh may dai hai trang, e ngay Tourane le 6 Septembre 1922.  Cuoi th co hang ch:

        Au nom du Synode,

Ky ten:

        R.A. Jaffray, President.

Th viet bang tieng Phap, noi dung tng trnh cho Monsieur le Gouveneur de l'Indochine ve cong tac truyen giao va nhan s.  Vao thi iem ay a co 300 tn hu Bap-tem.  ieu ang noi ay, ong R.A. Jaffray a viet trong phan m au:  "...Nous avons l'honneur de vous adresser un rapport abrege de l'oeuvre que notre Societe a la joie de poursuivre en Indochine Francaise..."  phan oan cuoi, ong viet:  "En terminant ce tres bref rapport, les membres du Synode de a Mission Evangelique de l'Indochine Francaise."

Tai My quoc, a so cac Hoi thanh cua C&M.A eu mang danh hieu Alliance.  Thi bay gi, vao cuoi the ky XIX, Hoi Christian & Missionary Alliance ch la mot cai Societe do tien s A. B. Simpson ket hp lien phai vi cac Hoi thanh ban tai Hoa ky nham vao cong cuoc truyen giao tai hai ngoai.  Qua danh xng Societe The C&M.A. nay, chung ta khong tm ra t "Evangelical."  Tai Viet nam, chung ta a quen va goi la Hoi "Phuc Am Lien Hiep."  Neu trong bc th cua ong R.A. Jaffray tng trnh len ong Thong oc cua toan mien ong Dng nam 1922 va dung en t "Mission Evangelique" th cung de hieu thoi.  Ke ra ong R.A. Jaffray cung thao ve van hoa va ton giao cua ngi Phap.  V cac ong Tay ch biet en "Evangelique" ben tri Au t Phong trao Cai Chanh cua the ky XVI, ch co bao gi nghe en t ng "Alliance" qua xa la nay.

T o, Hoi Tin Lanh Viet nam, Mission Evangelique c mang luon danh hieu "Tin Lanh."  au thap nien 50, Ban Tr s Tong Lien hoi a cai oi lai la Hoi Thanh Tin Lanh, Eglise Evangelique ch khong la Hoi "Lien Hiep" Alliance nh bao Hoi thanh a phng khac tren the gii thong thuoc, The C.&.M.A. Synod.

Noi ra goc tch cua cum t "Tin Lanh" cung khong phai la vo bo au.  e ngay nay chung ta nhan thc rang, Tin Lanh en t Thien Chua.  Khong co giao hoi nao oc ton va oc quyen nam gi t "Tin Lanh" cho rieng mnh.  Neu co giao hoi nao khac cung mang danh hieu "Tin Lanh" th cho la ho mn vay, hoac chong lai.  Te hn, con co cac nha lanh ao hoi "Lien Hiep Giao s va C oc nhan" (The C.&M.A.) a bieu tang cai mu "ta ao" cho nhng muc s khong trc thuoc C&.M.A.  Qua la nhng v nay mac cai syndrome hoi chng mac cam t ton "Bao hoang hn Vua."  Ngay xa, tien s A. B. Simpson a khong con dam phat ngon nh the oi vi nha lanh ao giao hoi ban.

Vai nam trc ay, toi co dp am ao vi cac v ong mon chu chan Alliance ri Viet nam sang My qua cac dien ODP hoac HO.  Cac v nay cho biet, trc khi len ng, ho a en yet kien bac be tren va nhan c li nhan nhu ai khai:  "Ben My co nhieu "ta giao" lam, cac ong phai can than..."  Dien nom li nhan nhu nay, hay qua cai huan lenh nay, chung ta co the hieu c bac be tren o muon cac v chu chan Alliance khi en ni hay lien lac va tm en Giao Hat "Lien Hiep Giao s va C oc nhan" v ch co Giao Hat Alliance nay mi la chanh giao o thoi.  The mi co "van e" ay ch.

Chung ta ang song vao cuoi the ky XX, vay ma con co hang giao pham vi loi suy t, quan iem nh vay, xem nh la mnh ang song trong thi Trung co hac am vi cai-goi-la "Ton giao Phap nh," The Inquisition khung khiep.  Ch co li cao buoc va ket an "ta ao" cho nhng ai khong cung mot giao hoi.  Co le, ch con thieu cai gian hoa thieu na la u bo o thoi!

Nien hoc 1962-1963, toi va hn 100 sinh vien, trong so nay co cac ong mon Le Cao Quy, Pham Xuan Thieu tong hoc tai Vien Than hoc va Thanh Kinh Hon Chong, Nha trang.  Vien a cho trnh chieu phim"Martin Luther, v Anh hung c tin" trong Campus.  Th hoi neu Giao ly Lutheran la "ta ao" th le nao Vien trng, Ban Giao s, co ca giao s Hoa ky Alliance, chap thuan cho trnh chieu phim nay?  Luc ay, muc s tien s Le Hoang Phu la Giam hoc cua Vien, nay ong ang hau viec Chua tai Hoa ky.  Them na, cac sinh vien lai con c hoc rat ky ve Phong trao Cai chanh do Martin Luther lanh ao trong text book "S Ky Hoi Thanh" cua J. D. Olsen, tap III.  Toi cung con nh rat ro giao s Vu Van C, trong gi Lich s Hoi thanh, ong rat ngng mo v Anh hung c tin, tien s Martin Luther.  Trong quyen Thanh ca cua Alliance Viet nam co bai so 41, ("A Mighty Fortress In Our God" tc "Chua, Bc Thanh Kien Co",) o la "quoc ca" cua Giao hoi Cai Chanh ma tac gia la tien s Martin Luther.

au thap nien 80, Hoi ong Thng nien cua Giao hat "Lien Hiep Giao S va C oc Nhan" Viet nam tai Bac My a hop tai giang ng cua mot ngoi trng Evangelical Lutheran Hoa ky va lien tiep nh the trong nhieu nam.  Ta ao hay chanh giao, pure doctrines ?  Hoi tc la tra li.

Muc S Nguyen Hu Ninh